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Common Rail Diesel

Common rail direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system built around a high-pressure (over 2,000 bar or 200 MPa or 29,000 psi) fuel rail feeding solenoid valves, as opposed to a low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors (or pump nozzles). High-pressure injection delivers power and fuel consumption benefits over earlier lower pressure fuel injection, by injecting fuel as a larger number of smaller droplets, giving a much higher ratio of surface area to volume. This provides improved vaporization from the surface of the fuel droplets, and so more efficient combining of atmospheric oxygen with vaporized fuel delivering more complete combustion. Common rail injection is widely used in diesel engines. It is also the basis of gasoline direct injection systems used on petrol engines.

common rail diesel system

The automotive manufacturers refer to their common rail engines by their own brand names:

Ashok Leyland: CRS (used in U Truck and E4 Busses)
Audi: TDI, BiTDi The "Bi" stands for BiTurbo
BMW Group (BMW and Mini): d (also used in the Land Rover Freelander as TD4 and the Rover 75 and MG ZT as CDT and CDTi), D and SD
Chrysler CRD
Citroën: HDi, e-HDi and BlueHDi
Cummins and Scania: XPI (developed under joint venture)
Cummins: CCR (Cummins pump with Bosch injectors)
Daimler: CDI
Fiat Group (Fiat, Alfa Romeo and Lancia): JTD (also branded as MultiJet, JTDm, and by supplied manufacturers as TDi, CDTi, TCDi, TiD, TTiD, DDiS and QuadraJet)
Ford Motor Company: TDCi (Duratorq and Powerstroke) and EcoBlue Diesel
GM: VCDi (licensed from VM Motori) and Duramax Diesel
Honda: i-CTDI and i-DTEC
Hyundai, Kia and Genesis: CRDi
Isuzu: iTEQ, Ddi and DI TURBO
Jaguar: d
Jeep: CRD and EcoDiesel
Komatsu: Tier3, Tier4, 4D95 and higher HPCR-series
Land Rover: TD4, eD4, SD4, TD6, TDV6, SDV6, TDV8, SDV8
Lexus: d (e.g. 450d and 220d)
Mahindra: CRDe, m2DiCR, mEagle, mHawk, mFalcon and mPower (Trucks)
Maserati: Diesel
Mazda: MZR-CD and Skyactiv-D (are manufactured by the Ford and PSA Peugeot Citroën joint venture) and earlier DiTD
Mercedes-Benz: CDI and d
Mitsubishi: Di-D
Nissan: DDTi
Opel/Vauxhall: DTI, CDTI, BiTurbo CDTI, CRI, Turbo D and BiTurbo D
Porsche: Diesel
Proton: SCDi
Groupe PSA (Peugeot, Citroën and DS): HDi, e-HDi or BlueHDi (developed under joint venture with Ford) – See PSA HDi engine
Renault, Dacia and Nissan: dCi and BLUEdCi (Infiniti uses some dCi engines as part of the Renault-Nissan Alliance, branded d)
Saab: TiD (The 2.2 turbo diesel engine was also called "TiD", but it didn't have Common rail) and TTiD The double "T" stands for Twin-Turbo
SsangYong: XDi, eXDI, XVT or D
Subaru: TD, D or BOXER DIESEL (as of Jan 2008)
Suzuki: DDiS
Tata: 2.2 VTT DiCOR (used in large SUV-class such as Safari), VARICOR (used in large SUV-class such as Safari Storme, Aria and Hexa),1.05 Revotorq CR3 (used in Tiago and Tigor) 1.5 Revotorq CR05 (used in Nexon and Altroz), 1.4 CR4 (used in Indica, Indigo), 3.0 CR4 (used in Sumo gold) 1.3 Quadrajet (supplied by Fiat and used in Indica Vista, Indigo Manza and Zest), and 2.0 Kryotec (also supplied by Fiat and used in SUV Harrier and All new Safari),3.3 L Turbotronn and 5L Turbotronn ( used in M&HCV Trucks).
Toyota: D-4D and D-CAT
Volkswagen Group (Volkswagen, Audi, SEAT and Škoda): TDI (more recent models use common rail, as opposed to the earlier unit injector engines). Bentley term their Bentayga diesel simply Diesel

Volvo: D, D2, D3, D4 and D5 engines (some are manufactured by Ford and PSA Peugeot Citroën), Volvo Penta D-series engines


Common Rail Diesel